Showing posts with label seeds. Show all posts
Showing posts with label seeds. Show all posts

May 21, 2018

Ingredients: Sesame Seeds, Til, Tal, Tillu, Teel, Gingelly, Gingili, Gingilli, Semsem, Simsim


Sesame seeds are believed to be the world's oldest condiment, and one of the first recorded plants used for its seeds. For thousands of years, sesame seeds have been an integral part of the cuisines of northern Africa, the Middle East, and across Asia. Even today, sesame seeds are used worldwide for  nutritional, medicinal, and industrial purposes.



Archaeological findings suggest sesame was first domesticated in the Indian subcontinent around 5,500 years ago. Sesame was cultivated during the Indus valley civilization where it was the main oil crop. Sesame oil was probably exported to Mesopotamia as early as 2500 BC. The genus Sesamum has many species, most are wild and found in northern Africa. Sesamum indicum is the cultivated variety that originated in India. Sesame seeds are such a part of India's history that they are revered by Hindus as droplets of Lord Vishnu's sweat.  The domestication of sesame was favored by its ability to grow in areas that do not support the growth of other crops. It is a robust crop that needs little tending. The sesame plant will tolerate high heat and drought conditions or excessive rain and moisture. Its hardy nature allows subsistence farmers to plant it along the edge of deserts and other marginally arable areas where no other crops will grow.

Scheherazade probably saying "Open al-juljulan!" not "Open sesame!"
The etymology of the words used for sesame seeds is just as ancient and interesting as the plant.  In India, where sesame has been cultivated since the Harappan period, the words for sesame derive from the Sanskrit root tila (तिल.) Therefore you hear sesame called til in Nepali, Punjabi, Bengali, Hindi and Urdu. In Gujurati sesame is called tal and in Telegu tillu. The English word sesame is derived from the Greek sesamon which appears to be a borrowed word from ancient Akkadia. European words for sesame like ajonjolí in Spanish, gergelim in Portuguese, ġulġlien in Maltese, and the now archaic English word gingelly are derived from the Arabic al-juljulan (الجلجلان). In the American South, you will hear sesame seeds referred to as benniseed or benne seeds. This is because benne is the word for sesame seeds in the Bantu dialect of the West African slaves brought to the United States.

Flowering sesame plant
Sesame plants are actually quite beautiful. They have attractive dark-green leaves and tubular flowers similar to foxgloves that can be white or pale pink. Mature plants can grow 3 to 6 feet tall depending on the variety. The seeds are collected from the dried seed pods at the end of the growing season.

Immature sesame pods
Seeds are ready for harvest when the pods turn brown and begin to crack open slightly. The seed pods at the bottom of the plant will often be ready to harvest while the flowers toward the top of the plant are still in bloom, necessitating multiple harvests toward the end of the growing season.

Dry, ripened, & dehisced sesame pods
The sesame pod or capsule only explodes open when the seeds are completely ripe in a process called dehiscence. Dehiscence time tends to vary, so farmers cut plants by hand and place them together in an upright position to continue ripening until all the pods have opened. The dried stalks can also be used as cooking fuel. I have read that before World War I about 30% of American households used sesame oil as their primary vegetable oil for cooking. Unfortunately, the intense manual labor required to harvest sesame seeds became its downfall in most western countries. Today, the American fast-food chain McDonald buys 75% of Mexico's sesame seed crop to top it's hamburger buns.

Bundles of sesame plants cut by hand to dry, note the pods still on the dry plants.
Since sesame has such tiny, flat, and compact seeds, it is difficult to dry after harvest. The small size and shape of the seed makes the movement of air around the seed difficult. The seeds need to be harvested when as dry as possible and stored at 6% moisture or less. If the seed is too moist, fermentation and rot can begin.

Unhulled sesame seeds on the left and hulled sesame seeds on the right
After harvesting, the sesame seeds are normally cleaned and hulled. Hulling the seeds makes them less prone to going rancid and results in a less bitter flavor profile. In some countries, they are passed through an electronic sorting machine that rejects any discolored seeds to ensure perfect color. This is done because sesame seeds with consistent appearance are perceived as better quality, and sell for a higher price. Immature, discolored or off-sized seeds are removed and used for sesame oil production.


Sesame seeds occur in many colors depending on the cultivar. The most preferred variety of sesame is an off-white color. Other common colours are buff, tan, gold, brown, reddish, gray, and black. The color is the same for the hull and the fruit.

Sesamol- natural antioxidant found in sesame oil
Sesame seeds are composed of 5% water, 23% carbohydrates, 12% dietary fiber, 50% to 60% fat, and 15% to 18% protein. Whole sesame seeds are also rich in several B vitamins, vitamin K, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc. Sesame oil has significant resistance against oxidation as a result of containing endogenous antioxidants including lignins and tocopherols. This combination of powerful natural antioxidants and lack of triple unsaturated fats give sesame oil a long shelf life. The byproduct or sesame seed meal that remains after oil extraction is so rich in protein (35-50%) that it can be used as feed for livestock.

Sesame & peanut chikki

Sesame seeds and oil are used extensively in India. Currently, India remains the world's second largest producer of sesame oil and seeds. Nearly every region of India has a unique sweet made of sesame seeds mixed with melted sugar. The candies are made into balls, bars, or clusters and have a delightful crunch similar to peanut brittle. Chikki is a popular treat all over India made of melted jaggery and various nuts and seeds or puffed rice as a flat bar. Sesame chikki is called til ki chikki in Hindi. In Assam, black sesame seeds are used to make ball-shaped  treats called til pitha and tilor laru during the festival of bihu. In northern and southern India sweet sesame balls called pindi in Urdu, ell urundai in Tamil, ellunda in Malayalam are eaten during the festival of Makar Sankranti and at weddings.

South Indian dry chutney called podi

In the cuisines of the southern Indian regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala sesame oil and seeds are used extensively. A powdered chutney called podi made of ground sesame seeds, urad dal, chickpea, dry chilis is often served as a condiment with idli and dosa. After serving the podi is mixed with a little sesame oil to make a paste to be used as a dipping sauce. I've also seen sesame seeds dry roasted and ground to make gravy for curries in South India.

Traditional sweet Nepali dumpling called yomari

Nepalis use sesame seeds in a variety of savory vegetable chutneys, potato dishes, sweet laddoos, and a sweet dumpling called yomari. As with most Nepali sweets, yomari are only made and eaten for special holidays such as Purnima or Yomari Punhi. The steamed dumpling is made out of rice flour dough shaped like a fish and filled with a mixture of sesame seeds and chaku. (Chaku is jaggery or raw sugar that's been cooked down to an almost molasses-like dark caramel. ) The rich and sugary filling of yomari is quite the delicious contrast to the tender rice dough shell. I've only seen Nepalis using sesame oil for shallow or deep frying traditional sweets and samosas. They like to use sesame oil diluted in a ratio of 1:3 with a flavorless oil like sunflower seed or soy oil just like the Japanese do for frying tempura.


For culinary use, sesame oil is available in light and dark versions. The pale yellow or golden oil is pressed from raw sesame seeds resulting in a high smoke point and is thus suitable for use as a frying oil. Light sesame oil has a mild, nutty flavor. The dark amber or brown oil is pressed from sesame seeds that have been roasted and has a rich, aromatic flavor. Dark sesame oil also has a  lower smoke point and is unsuitable for deep-frying, it can be used for stir-frying of meats and vegetables or to cook omelets. East Asian cuisines often use roasted sesame oil for seasoning or as a condiment.

I just went and bought a kilo bag of sesame seeds for about $2 USD. I'm all jazzed to try my hand at making all sorts of sesame treats for Iftar this Ramadan from tahini to laddoos! How about you?


Ramadan Mubarak!

Aug 24, 2016

Bhang ki Chaatni (Hemp Seed Chutney)

bhang, cannabis, chaatni, chutney, easy, hemp, Indian, marijuana, mint, Recipe, seeds, veg, vegan, vegetarian,

Zesty, zingy, and healthy too this recipe combines the goodness of hemp seeds with the bright flavors of mint and lime. Hemp seeds are an excellent source of the "right" fatty acids, fiber, and all the essential amino acids for a "perfect protein" in a vegetarian diet. Try this tasty chutney as a healthful addition to any rice or roti based meal. 

bhang, cannabis, chaatni, chutney, easy, hemp, Indian, marijuana, mint, Recipe, seeds, veg, vegan, vegetarian,

Yes, "bhang" means hemp or marijuana. No, you will not get "high" or even a buzz from this chutney as hemp seeds are not psychoactive. Bhang or hemp seeds are actually a fairly common pantry item here in the Himalayas. I bought these bhang seeds our local market for a few rupees an ounce. They are favored for their nutty flavor in chutneys and they do taste a lot like sunflower seeds and a bit like pine nuts. I can certainly see how they'd be great in a basil pesto. Nutritionally, hemp seeds are a great source of balanced omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, both soluble and insoluble fiber, and all the 20 amino acids necessary for good health. They are considered a "warming" food in the Ayurvedic and Unani sense so eating them in small amounts as in this chutney is recommended.

Ingredients:
1/3 C hemp/bhang seeds
1 tsp garlic/lahsun paste
1 tsp ginger/adrakh paste
2-3 green chilis/hari mirch, roughly chopped (omit for less heat)
2 TBS oil of choice (I used rice bran oil)
1 TBS lime/nimbu luice
3 TBS chopped fresh mint/pudina or 1 TBS dried mint
2 TBS water
1 tsp chaat masala or dry roasted cumin/jeera seeds
salt to taste

Here's what to do:
1) Dry roast hemp/bhang seeds in a kadhai or deep skillet for about 3 minutes or until seeds begin to turn brown. Remove from heat and allow seeds to cool to room temperature.


2) When cooled grind dry roasted hemp seeds to powder using mortar and pestle, sil-batta, or electric coffee grinder. Mix ground hemp seeds with garlic paste, ginger paste, green chilis, oil of choice, lime juice, mint, water, and chaat masala until smooth in mixie or food processor. Salt to taste and keep in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to one week. 


Helpful Hints:
The hemp seeds you buy in western countries are usually steamed to make them non viable. Steamed hemp seeds go rancid fast. Buy hemp seeds at stores that keep the hemp seeds in the refrigerated or freezer section.

May 8, 2016

Ingredient of the Week: Anardana, Dried Pomegranate Seeds



Anardana being sold in sacks at Delhi's famed spice market Khari Boali
"Anar" means pomegranate and "dana" means seed. Anardana refers to the dried pomegranate seeds used in Middle Eastern and South Asian cuisines. It is primarily used as a souring agent in Desi cuisines like limes, amchur, or tamarind. The pomegranate seeds are sun dried or pan roasted whole so that bits of pulp remain rendering the seeds a bit sticky with a fruity, slightly sweet and tart flavor.

"Daru" a type of wild pomegranate growing in the Himalayas.
(photo from fruitipedia)
The best quality anardana is said to come from a variety of wild pomegranate trees called "daru" around the Himalayan town of Shimla in the north Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. (Do not confuse the fruit "daru" with the rotgut homemade and often poisonous liquor called "Desi daru.") Anardana is commercially available whole as seen in the top photo taken at Delhi's Khari Baoli spice market or ground to a fine powder as seen in the box below of the popular Indian brand MDH.

According to celebrity chef Sanjeev Kapoor one can also easily make anardana by dry roasting fresh pomegranate seeds in a non stick pan until all moisture has left them. Since pomegranates are in season here in Nepal I thought I'd have a go at it.


So this is how I started out. I bought a couple of pomegranates from our local fruit and vegetable walla. I'm not sure exactly where these pomegranates came from but they certainly aren't like the pomegranates from my native California. The seeds from the pomegranates in California are a lurid red and stain your hands, mouth, and clothing that same lurid red for days. These pomegranates were a bit pale, didn't stain at all and they didn't have the sweetness that California pomegranates do either. My husband said they weren't very good quality.


At about 9 minutes into the dry roasting the seeds started popping, sort of like Mexican jumping beans. At that point I let them cool and attempted to grind them.


I ended up with this rather sticky glob. I'd say buy it ready-made rather than subject your home grinder to this sort of abuse. There wasn't much flavor to it other than a generic prune or raisin type dried fruit note. This procedure also left my nonstick pan a sticky mess, it might be interesting to do this and deglaze the pan for an interesting fruity flavored sauce for meat. To make anardana commercially in Shimla they dry the seeds and pulp on rooftops for 10 to 15 days. I think that would work much better than this dry roasting nonsense.

What does it taste like?
The commercially prepared anardana I've tasted is aggressively acidic and astringent with a mild dried fruit flavor that increases with cooking. Think powdered dried cranberries for a similar taste. Evidently the smaller wild daru pomegranates used for the commercial version contain far more tannins than the modern large sweeter cultivars grown for eating out of hand. The tannins are what makes for the sourness and astringency of true anardana.So unless you have a wild pomegranate tree or access to some wild pomegranates I'd say don't bother making your own. I've heard the flavor of anardana compared to pomegranate molasses and I can taste the similarities, but Desi anardana is far more astringent.

"Daru" pomegranates from the Himalayas, each fruit is only 2-3 inches across
(photo from fruitipedia)
How to use it?
Anardana is valued in Desi dishes for it's souring abilities and slightly sweet fruit flavor. Other souring agents like limes/nimbu and amchur/dried mango powder must be added at the end of the cooking process to preserve their flavor. Anardana's fruit flavor increases while it's sharpness mellows the longer it is cooked. When used sparingly in legume and vegetable dishes like curried chickpeas, dals, or parathas it can add depth and richness. In chutneys anardana is often used in large amounts and paired with the bracing heat of green chilis for a hot and tangy blast. 

If you can't find anardana?
I'm of the same opinion as Madhur Jaffrey as quoted in an article in The Observer, 2003-

"I have had little luck with anardana in the West. I can buy it all right, but the seeds are dark and unyielding, nothing like the soft brown, melting seeds found in Pakistan or, indeed, in the villages of Indian Punjab. Instead I resort to lemon juice".

Actually I prefer limes/nimbu as a souring agent because I like their floral notes better than the dried fruit flavor of anardana. However, if you're really intent on getting that sweet and sour tang of anardana I'd try a dollop of pomegranate molasses stirred in towards the end of cooking. 

Our little wild pomegranate tree growing on the edge of the corn field.
Yes, that black spot on the left is Ms. Chinger photobombing the Daru tree.
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