Showing posts with label himalaya. Show all posts
Showing posts with label himalaya. Show all posts

Jan 23, 2017

Ingredients: Jimbu, Jambu, Jamboo, Jhiku-cha

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

Jimbu, jambu, jamboo, or  jhiku-cha is a dried herb used in Himalayan regions. It is the dried stalks and leaves of two species of wild onions and looks like dried grass. When fried in ghee or oil the dried herb has a pungent flavor much like garlic or shallots. After tempering in this manner it is traditionally used to flavor lentils, pickles, meat, salads, and vegetables.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,
 Allium przewalskianum 
jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,
Allium hypsistum
Allium hypsistum and Allium przewalskianum are the two perennial species of the onion family that are dried to make jimbu. The plants thrive in the sandy soils and cool arid climates of the Himalayas from 2,000m to 4,800m in altitude. Both are small species slightly over a foot in height and are found from Central Asia to China. Dense umbels of rose-purple flowers and fibrous orange-colored bulbs are distinctive of both species too.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,
A valley in the Upper Mustang region of Nepal, formerly known as the Kingdom of Lo

The high altitude Upper Mustang region of Nepal is where most jimbu is harvested.
The wild herb is seasonal and is foraged between June and September. The leaves and stems are then allowed to air-dry in sheds. The Thakali people of Nepal inhabit the Upper Mustang and the sale of jimbu is a significant part of their annual household income. About 3288 kilograms of dried jimbu was estimated to be collected in Upper Mustang during 2004. Most of the land in the high desert Mustang region lacks vegetation. The sandy soils are prone to erosion by wind, snow, and rain. Allium hypsistum and Allium przewalskianum grow in soil-binding clumps which help to prevent this erosion. Unfortunately over harvesting of these wild plants has been a problem with Allium przewalskianum listed as a vulnerable species in the 1990s.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

Here in Pokhara we have a large population of Thakali folks so you'll often see jimbu in large sacks at markets in early Fall. If kept cool, dry, and out of direct sunlight jimbu stores well for about a year.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

In the past few years I've even seen jimbu packaged at the local department store. Priced at a little over a dollar for 25 grams it's not cheap but not exorbitantly expensive compared to spices with similar flavor such as hing/asafoetida. Jimbu smells like dried onions to me.


So as you can imagine we have quite a few Thakali restaurants around here. We have other regional specialty restaurants such as Newari and Gurung too. One of the most famous Thakali dishes is made with black lentils called kalo maas. Kalo maas is a black lentil grown at lower hilly elevations. The Thakali also grow a red bean at higher elevations that is much like a pinto bean in flavor called Simi. The Thakali prefer to split their lentils before cooking so that's how you'll see them for sale at markets.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,
Split black lentils or urad dal, called kalo maas in Nepali
I've tried cooking this local kalo maas a few times with no success. You can see how tiny these split lentils are in the photo. They are riddled with tiny pieces of gravel that are about the same color and size as the lentil bits. Traditionally, one rinses the kalo maas vigorously then spreads it out on a plate to laboriously sort out all the gravel, twigs, and whatnot. Inevitably you miss a few gravelly bits and some unsuspecting diner bites down on a piece of gravel. NOT PLEASANT. Anyway, after you've sorted your lentils you boil them with a pinch of turmeric until creamy. Mine were more like gluey.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

The jimbu and other spices used such as dry red chili, fenugreek seeds, cumin seeds, and garlic are then fried in smoking hot ghee in a technique called jhannu in Nepali. This same tempering technique is called chaunk in Hindi, tadka in Punjabi, and baghaar in Urdu. The tempered spices and hot ghee are poured onto the boiled lentils making a distinctive sizzling sound.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

The jhannu or tempering technique is what gives this dish it's uniquely aromatic, garlicky, buttery and smoky flavor. The fried jimbu and I'm guessing the fried fenugreek seeds also lend the grayish cooked lentils a rather peculiar green cast.

jimbu, jambu, jamboo, jhiku-cha, himlayan, herb, allium, nepal, przewalskianum, hypsistum, dal, himalaya, dried, mustang, upper mustang, thakali,

Here's a typical thali from a local Thakali restaurant. This is the Thakali version of the traditional Nepali meal of dal-bhat-tarkaari or lentils-rice-vegetables. In the lower right corner is the dal or lentils made with jimbu. The bhat or rice is in the center and composes most of the meal. The tarkaari or vegetables are the sauteed greens and the yellow potatoes you see on the upper right as well as the bit of raw vegetables on the upper left. (The greens and potatoes were probably made with jimbu too.) The bits of meat in red sauce on the bottom center are a special treat and not usually an everyday occurrence. Just in case anything is too spicy or you're having a bit of tummy trouble a little bowl of yogurt or curd like you see on the upper left is usually served with all meals also.

That's all I know about the traditional and uniquely Himalayan herb called jimbu. Another uniquely Nepali spice is timur which you can read about here. Hope you enjoyed my little essay and keep calmly currying on,
Bibi


Apr 17, 2016

Ingredients: Himalayan Black Salt, Kala Namak, Kala Noon, Bit Lobon, Bire Noon

Himalayan Black Salt, Kala Namak, Kala Noon, Bit Lobon, Bire Noon

Himalayan black salt is a condiment or seasoning used in South Asia. Traditionally mined in the Himalayas for centuries it is variously called kala namak, kala noon, bit lobon, or bire noon in the languages of the Indian Subcontinent. The raw mined rock salt is not naturally the deep violet to brownish color you see in the photo above. It is heated in a furnace for twenty-four hours reducing the naturally occurring iron sulfate to a darker sulfide. Nowadays most Himalayan black salt is prepared synthetically in big factories in India. 

The remote high altitude Nepali region of Mustang where there are several salt mines.
Himalayan black salt's pungent, egg-like taste comes from all the sulfurous compounds it contains. It's slightly sour flavor comes from acidic bisulfites and bisulfates. The saltiness of Himalayan black salt comes from sodium chloride, the same as table salt. It's deep violet hue is a result of natural occurring iron sulfate being kilned and reduced to iron sulfide. When ground for consumption the dark crystals become a soft pink powder.

Himalayan Black Salt, Kala Namak, Kala Noon, Bit Lobon, Bire Noon
Ground Himalayan black salt.
In Nepal, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh Himalayan black salt is used to flavor savory chutneys, raitas, and even fruit. It is also the ingredient responsible for the pungent flavor of the popular Desi spice blend called chaat masala.


Chaat means snack and masala means spices. I always thought the sulfury tinge to chaat masalas was solely due to hing or asafoetida. Then I tasted Himalayan black salt and recognized it immediately. Chaat masala usually contains a mixture of Himalayan black salt, amchur, dry ginger, hing, cumin, black pepper, ajwain,  chili powder, and coriander.  Chaats made of raw chopped vegetables of fruits are often sold by street vendors in South Asia which are liberally laced with chaat masala.

Himalayan Black Salt, Kala Namak, Kala Noon, Bit Lobon, Bire Noon

Interestingly, the vegan community has found a new use for Himalayan black salt. To some the pungent sulfur flavor of Himalayan black salt reminds them of eggs. So if you are looking to make your tofu scramble or deviled tofu taste more egg-like just add a dash of Himalayan black salt. Who knew there was a pink salt that tastes like eggs!?!

Himalayan Black Salt, Kala Namak, Kala Noon, Bit Lobon, Bire Noon
Vegan deviled eggs with kala namak courtesy of Baked In
Helpful hints:
Do not confuse Himalayan pink salt with Himalayan black salt, the pink salt comes from the Salt Range mountains in Pakistan and tastes just like regular table salt despite it's pink hue. When ground Himalayan black salt looks pink but tastes like rotten eggs or sulfur.

Calmly currying on,
Bibi

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