Showing posts with label Mutton. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mutton. Show all posts

Jun 4, 2018

Tips & Tools: How to Make a Mughal-Style Shorba (Stock) in a Pressure Cooker

shorba, chorba, stock, broth, mughal, recipe, method, mutton, chicken, technique, pressure cooker, easy, traditional, authentic, wazwan, indian, pulao, biryani,

A flavorful stock or shorba is the secret ingredient that will take your savory South Asian dishes from ordinary to exceptional! Get your biryanis bangin' and your pulaos poppin' with this easy recipe using a pressure cooker. 


A royal feast for the Uzbeks, Mughal, 18th century, National Museum of India
The cooking of the ancient Mughals was a veritable riot of flavors, fragrance, colors, experiments, protocol, table manners, traditions, techniques, and textures. At least one hundred different and exquisite dishes were served at each meal. Each dish was prepared by one cook fiercely seeking favor with the emperor. With techniques taken from the Persian and Ottoman empires, the finest of ingredients were combined in elaborate dishes. One such technique was the making of the shorba or stock to imbue savory dishes with umami-rich flavor. The word shorba comes from the Persian term شوربا with "shor" meaning salty and "ba" meaning stew. In today's modern vernacular a shorba has come to mean any sort of soup, gravy, or stew. But in the days of the Mughals, a shorba was a savory bone or meat-based broth.

The Waza!
The Mughals were prolific documenters but we have our own living historian of Mughal cuisine: the waza! The supreme chef of the Kashmiri Wazwan or traditional formal banquet is our living historian. When you taste the dishes of the Wazwan you are actually tasting history. For generations of wazas the dishes and methods of the royal Mughal court have been passed down. And this is whom I've learned this recipe for a classic shorba from. After the waza has chosen the animals and overseen their butchering one of the first things he does is make the shorba.

Gushtaba- famed dish of the Wazwan made of pounded mutton meatballs in a delicate yogurt sauce
This is because the shorba or bone-based stock is what gives so many Wazwan dishes their full, rich flavor. Yakhni, Rogan Josh, Gushtaba, Rishta, Aab Gosht, pulao, biryani, - just about all savory dishes benefit from the addition of a well-made shorba. I've rarely seen a waza add water to a dish. Mughal cooking isn't just grease and masala as some Delhi restaurants might lead you to believe.


The Waza begins to make the shorba by frying the bones he has chosen to make the stock. This gives the shorba a richer, slightly caramelized flavor and achieves the same effect that western chefs get when they roast bones for a stock. In the tradition of the Wazwan, every part of the animal is used. I save up the bony bits and joints from mutton and the necks and backs from chicken in a box in the freezer to make my shorba. The waza makes gallons of shorba in a huge deg over a fire for a Wazwan.  I find a pressure cooker more suited to my needs as I usually only make a little over a liter.



The Waza does not use any sort of fresh herbs or root vegetables except for possibly a few cloves of garlic in making the shorba.  No French mirepoix, German Suppengrün, Dutch soepgroente, Italian soffritt, or Polish włoszczyzna is used in the making of stocks, soups, sauces, and stews as in western cuisines. No bouquet garni of fresh herbs tied with string or placed in a cheesecloth bundle is used either.



Rather, the Waza uses sabut garam masala or the whole spices you'd find ground into garam masala to season his shorba. Black peppercorns, green cardamom, cumin, cloves, cassia bark, cassia leaves, fennel, coriander, black cardamoms, - the list can vary according to each waza. Sometimes even saffron is included for an especially lavish touch. Our waza also adds a few cloves of garlic to the mix, not all wazas do that though.







The whole spices or sabut garam masala are then tied into a cheesecloth sachet called a potli. The waza then places the potli full of spices into the deg or huge urn-shaped pot with the fried bones and some water.








The deg and its contents are then allowed to simmer over a woodfire for hours until reduced to the desired amount. The urn-shaped cooking vessels you see in the above photo are what is called a deg in Kashmiri cooking, they are made of beaten copper and are quite heavy. The shape and craftsmanship of the deg goes back before the time of the Mughals. I prefer to use a pressure cooker as woodfires and giant degs aren't very practical in my kitchen.


After the shorba is completely cooked the waza strains the liquid through cheesecloth to remove most of the solids and particulates. The spice-filled potli is then discarded. Above you can see the huge blue tub partially covered by cheesecloth that the waza's helper strained the newly-made shorba into. Now the shorba is ready to be ladled out for use in the many dishes of the Wazwan - 36 courses minimum!


Bibi's jugaadi or 'make-do' do straining method requires only a collander placed over a pot with a spout. Not quite as efficient as cheesecloth over a tub but it works, it is reusable, and it is using equipment I always have on hand in my kitchen!


Here is Bibi's shorba. I only make shorba for special occasions like Ramadan, Eid, or an Urs when I'll be cooking lots of savory dishes. Right now during Ramadan I make a special mutton or chicken dish every day to send to the mosque for iftar. About a month in advance of when I wish to make shorba I'll start saving mutton bones and or chicken necks and backs in the freezer. Then once a week I'll make a fresh batch of both mutton and chicken shorba and keep it in the refrigerator until needed. A shorba is a simple, healthy, and inexpensive way to give your curries, gravies, sauces, sooups, biryanis, and an amazingly authentic taste!

Ingredients:
5-7 raw mutton bones or 5-7 raw chicken necks and/or backs
5 liter or larger pressure cooker
2 TBS ghee or cooking oil of choice
2 tsp salt (optional but will help preserve the stock/shorba)
5 C water
1 tsp cumin seeds/jeera
1 tsp fennel seeds/saunf
3 green cardamoms/elaichi
2-inch piece of cassia bark/dalchini or cinnamon stick
2 cassia leaves/tej patta
5 cloves/laung
4 black cardamoms/kali elaichi, bruised in a mortar and pestle
10 black peppercorns/kali mirch
3 cloves garlic/lahsun (optional)

Here's what to do:
1) In a 5-liter pressure cooker heat ghee or cooking oil with salt over medium heat for 5 minutes. Add mutton bones or chicken pieces and fry for about 8-10 minutes or until golden brown.


2) Add 5 cups of water and whole spices to browned bones.


3) Seal pressure cooker and heat for 15 minutes or one whistle. Turn off heat but leave pressure cooker sealed on the burner for 10 minutes.


4) Unseal pressure-cooker you should have a nice, rich, brown stock/shorba! Allow to cool to slightly warmer than room temperature.


5) Strain or sieve finished stock/shorba to remove bones and spices.


6) Place the shorba in a sealed airtight container and keep refrigerated until ready to use. You will see the shorba separate with a layer of fat rising to the top. Keep stock/shorba in the refrigerator in a sealed, airtight container for up to two weeks if you leave the layer of fat or up to one week if fat is removed. (You can use the fat scooped off the top just as you would ghee or clarified butter- I use it to fry onions with.)

Ramadan Kareem!

Bibi ;)

May 28, 2018

Ramadan Recipe Round-up!

authentic, beef, Chicken, dates, dessert, easy, laddoos, lamb, Mutton, ramadan, Recipe, round-up, simple,

During the month of Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, even foregoing water. Food takes on a special significance during this holy fast. Before sunrise Muslims eat suhoor, a big breakfast large enough to to get them through the day. After sunset comes iftar, or the breaking of the fast. Iftar is often a communal and festive affair. Hearty meat dishes and rich desserts are popular during Ramadan as a way to fill up before or after fasting. I've rounded up my favorite Ramadan recipes for suhoor and iftar, as well as for the big Eid-al-Fitr feasts afterward!


Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,
Railway Mutton Curry: During the days of the British Raj while traveling on Indian Railways a British officer complained the mutton curry served was too hot for his liking. An ingenious Indian Railways chef deliciously tamed the fiery curry by adding coconut milkThus "Railway Mutton Curry" became a popular dish in its own right and was served in restaurants as well as railway refreshment rooms and long-distance trains throughout India. An easy and delicious dish to make for Ramadan.

Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,
Karim's Aloo Ghosht (Mughal Style Mutton with Potatoes):  Karim's is the most famous and iconic Mughal restaurant of old Delhi. "Aloo" means potato and "ghosht" is Urdu for mutton. In classic Mughal style, mutton is simmered in a rich blend of caramelized onions, warm aromatic spices, and tangy yogurt until falling off the bone tender. This creates the savory and spicy red gravy so prized by the royals of the Mughal court which perfectly pairs with the creamy and delicate potatoes.

Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,Vikas Khanna's Classic Lamb Curry: the famed Michelin starred chef, restaurateur, and cookbook writer's version of an authentic north Indian curry. Lamb is simmered until tender in a rich gravy infused with traditional aromatic spices. So easy to make, everyone will think you're an award-winning chef when you make this too!



Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,
Mutton Do Pyaaza: "Do" means two or twice and "pyaaza" means onions. As the name implies this classic North Indian dish features a lavish amount of onions. Onions are added in two stages, first slowly caramelized then ground with traditional spices to make a rich brown gravy. The mutton is then braised until tender in this bold mix of rustic flavors. This recipe also works well with lamb, beef, or water buffalo stew meat. Pair with rotis, parathas, or chapattis for a hearty meal.

Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,


Punjabi Dhaba Style Mutton: Punjabi Dhaba restaurants are popular with all members of the traveling public along India's burgeoning highway system, not just Punjabi drivers. This is my version of the traditional North Indian mutton curry served at India's famed Punjabi dhabas. This recipe also works well with lamb, beef, or water buffalo stew meat.



Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,


Nepali Style Chicken Curry: From the heart of the Himalayas comes this delicious chicken curry. Chicken is marinated then slowly simmered until delectably tender in a richly seasoned sauce of traditional Nepali spices. Don't let that long list of ingredients in this recipe intimidate you, this is one of the easiest and tastiest chicken curries you'll ever make!



Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,Kashmiri Style Chicken Curry: From the beautiful vale of Kashmir comes this recipe for a brilliant red chicken curry. The warmth of traditional aromatic spices and crimson Kashmiri chilis are melded in a velvety yogurt based sauce. Crisply seared chicken is then simmered until meltingly tender in this richly aromatic sauce. The Kashmiris enjoy this dish garnished with dried mint or perhaps sultanas and cashews on special occasions.

Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,


Chicken Rogan Josh: Rogan Josh made with mutton is a traditional dish of Kashmir and was introduced by the Persian speaking Mughals. This recipe uses chicken in place of mutton for a delicious red curry. Although lavishly spiced this dish is more aromatic in flavor than fiery hot. The chicken is seared until golden brown then braised until tender in the rich and velvety sauce.




Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic, 
Malabar Style Chicken Curry: A lavish use of spices, tart tamarind, and rich coconut are the hallmarks of Malabar cuisine. This boldly spiced brilliant red chicken curry is typical of Malabar's delicious dishes. Mellowed by sweet and sumptuous coconut milk the spices present as warmly aromatic rather than fiery hot. The sweet and sour tang of tamarind perfectly accentuates the combination of assertive flavors.


Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,
Mughal Style Green Chicken: Mildly spiced but bright with the flavors of fresh mint and cilantro. Ground browned onions, almonds, and yogurt make for a rich gravy. Whenever you see a "Mughlai" recipe you know it's going to include lots of steps- chopping, marinating, frying, cooling, grinding, more frying, and probably then some. Here I've minimized the steps using a few modern techniques. But this recipe will still take at least a good three to four hours to complete.

Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic, 




Labaniah (Saudi Milk and Pistachio Candy): From Saudi Arabia comes this sweet treat. Indian Muslims on Hajj brought milky mithai with them on their pilgrimage to Mecca. The Saudis liked the traditional Indian sweets so much they made their own version! Humble milk powder is transformed into delicious bite-sized candies with the rich flavors of saffron, cardamom, and pistachios in this easy recipe.





Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,


Shortcut Gulab Jamun: Who doesn't love a gulab jamun? Making this traditional sweet treat is a snap with this shortcut recipe. This simple recipe using bread and milk to make gulab jamuns was all over the internet a few years back, so I am not sure where it originated. I've embellished it a bit by infusing the milk used for the gulab jamuns with Kashmiri saffron. The saffron not only gives the gulab jamuns with it's rich flavor and color, but also lends it's golden hue to the syrup as the gulab jamuns steep.


Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic,



Date and Crispy Rice Laddoos: Easy, eggless, and no-bake these laddoos are a quick and delicious treat to make! Dates are simmered into a rich caramel then combined with crunchy puffed rice for a delicately crisp and divinely sweet indulgence. Perfect for Ramadan or any other holiday featuring lots of decadent goodies.  



Ramadan, recipe, round-up, mutton, chicken, beef, lamb, dates, dessert, laddoos, easy, simple, authentic, 






Rose, Coconut, and Cardamom Laddoos: These delicately flavored laddoos are elegant enough to serve as a dessert at a posh dinner party or holiday gathering yet easy enough to make for an after school treat. The classic Indian pairing of light rose, aromatic cardamom, and rich coconut is combined with milky sweetness in this dainty treat!




Wishing you and yours a joyous and blessed Ramadan! 
Love, Bibi



Aug 31, 2016

Mutton Do Pyaaza

 Mutton Do Pyaaza, beef, mutton, goat, lamb, buffalo, non veg, meat, indian, onions, recipe, easy, mughal, punjabi,

"Do" means two or twice and "pyaaza" means onions. As the name implies this classic North Indian dish features a lavish amount of onions. Onions are added in two stages, first slowly caramelized then ground with traditional spices to make a rich brown gravy. The mutton is then braised until tender in this bold mix of rustic flavors. This recipe also works well with lamb, beef, or water buffalo stew meat. Pair with with rotis, parathas, or chapattis for a hearty meal.

Mutton Do Pyaaza beef, mutton, goat, lamb, buffalo, non veg, meat, indian, onions, recipe, easy, mughal, punjabi,

Ingredients:
1kg/2lbs mutton/goat or lamb, cut into 3 inch pieces, bone in and lean preferred
1/4 C cooking oil
2 C onions, sliced thinly into half moons
1 tsp salt
2 C water or stock
Grind to paste for masala:
2 C onions, roughly chopped
1 TBS garlic/lahsun paste
1 TBS ginger/adrak paste
1 TBS coriander/dhania seeds
1 TBS cumin/jeera seeds
1 TBS garam masala
1/2 tsp turmeric/haldi
10 black peppercorns/kali mirch
3 black cardamoms/kali elaichi
3-4 green chilis/hari mirch, chopped roughly
1 tsp salt

Here's what to do:
1) Grind ingredients listed under masala to smooth paste, set aside.



2) Heat oil in pressure cooker, deep heavy bottomed skillet, or kadhai. Fry thinly sliced onions with 1 teaspoon salt until golden brown, this should take about 10 minutes.



3) Add mutton pieces to fried onions in pan. Stir well and cook until meat is slightly browned.



4) Add ground masala paste to mutton and fried onions. Stir well and allow to fry for 5 minutes.



5) Add 2 C water or stock to the mixture in pan or enough liquid so meat is covered by at least a half an inch.  If using pressure cooker allow to steam for 5-6 whistles or until meat is to desired tenderness. If using skillet or kadhai simmer covered over medium heat until meat is to desired tenderness, adding a half cup more water at a time if necessary (usually this takes at least two to three hours with goat.)


6) The dish should have a thick gravy when finished. If gravy is thin allow to simmer with lid off for a few minutes. Salt to taste and serve.

Helpful Hints:
I'm cooking a Nepali goat in these photos so I'm using a pressure cooker. If you're cooking this recipe with meat that is not as tough such as Kashmiri lamb or American beef you'd probably want to use a Dutch oven or deep skillet and reduce cooking times accordingly.

If you live somewhere that you can't get the pink Desi onions pictured, the yellow onions found in most western markets are the best substitute. Despite the different color they tend to have similar flavor profile & level of  sweetness.  Do not use red onions, 'sweet' onions, Walla Walla onions, or Vidalia onions in place of pyaaz. They tend to be too sugary, scorching easily & often resulting in a burnt taste.

After chopping and grinding all the onions required for this recipe you may find your hands reek of onions. Rubbing a slice of raw tomato on your hands will remove the onion smell immediately.

Jun 29, 2016

Vikas Khanna's Classic Lamb Curry

Vikas Khanna classic lamb curry recipe beef goat indian punjabi mutton easy simple authentic

From the award winning Michelin starred Indian chef, restaurateur, and cookbook writer Vikas Khanna comes this recipe for an authentic North Indian style lamb curry. Lamb is simmered until tender in a rich gravy infused with traditional aromatic spices. So easy to make, everyone will think you're an award winning chef when you make this too!

Mr Khanna on one of his cookbooks looking Sexy & Alive!
I found this recipe on one of Vikas Khanna's numerous and rather derelict websites here. I'm not sure why Mr. Khanna has so many ill written and poorly maintained websites as his cookbooks are very well written and organized. Anyway, Mr. Vikas is originally from the Punjabi metropolis of Amritsar and has now been catapulted to culinary super stardom and Michelin starred fame for his amazing restaurant Junoon. He also made People magazine's "Sexiest Man Alive" list in 2011, has cooked for President Obama at the White House, been a guest judge on Australian Masterchef, and still does appearances frequently on talk and cooking shows.

On perusal of this recipe on Mr Khanna's website I noticed it had no garlic or ginger. I can't imagine a traditional North Indian meat curry without garlic or ginger so I added a bit. Other than that I've just rewritten the recipe in simpler form. The liberal use of spices and manner of preparation are typically Punjabi and the resulting dish is truly authentic. I usually start the marination for this dish the morning of or the day before the evening meal or dinner party I wish to serve it at. Then with less than an hour's cooking time your curry is ready to go. This super easy recipe also works well with beef, mutton/goat, venison, or water buffalo. If you are new to making curries or are an "old pro" this is a great recipe to try!

Ingredients:
1kg/2lbs lamb or mutton, cut into 2-3 inch pieces
3 TBS cooking oil or ghee
5 green cardamoms/elaichi, bruised with mortar and pestle
3 cassia leaves/tej patta
2 inch piece of cassia bark/dalchini (or cinnamon stick)
1 tsp cumin/jeera seeds
3-4 green chilis/hari mirch, chopped finely (optional, omit for less heat)
1 large tomato/tamatar, diced finely
2 C water or stock/shorba
Grind to smooth paste for marinade:
1&1/2 C yogurt/dahi
3 onions, chopped roughly
1 TBS garlic/lahsun paste
1 TBS ginger/adrak paste
1 TBS Kashmiri mirch (or 1&1/2tsp paprika plus 1&1/2tsp cayenne powder)
1 TBS coriander/dhania
1 TBS cumin/jeera
2 tsp garam masala
1/2 tsp turmeric/haldi
2 tsp salt

Here's what to do:
1) Grind all ingredients listed under marinade to paste in mixie, food processor, or blender. Coat all meat pieces with marinade. Allow meat to marinate for 4 to 6 hours in the refrigerator sealed in an airtight container.
 2) When ready to cook  heat oil with for 5 minutes in a deep heavy bottomed skillet, stock pot, or pressure cooker. Add green cardamom/elaichi, cassia leaves/tej patta, and cassia bark/dalchini to hot oil and fry for 2 minutes.

3) Add meat and marinade to frying spices. Stir well and cook for 4 minutes. Add diced tomato and chopped green chilis/hari mirch and allow to simmer for 4 more minutes.

4) If you are cooking young Kashmiri lamb add 2 cups water or stock and allow to simmer over low heat for 30 to 40 minutes or until meat is tender.  If you are cooking a tough Nepali goat like I am you'll want to use a pressure cooker and add enough water or stock so that meat is just covered. Seal pressure cooker and allow to steam for 5 to 6 whistles or until meat is tender.
5) When meat is cooked to desired tenderness salt to taste and serve with rice, naan, or rotis.

Helpful hints:
This recipe also works well with beef, mutton/goat, venison, or water buffalo. Simply adjust cooking time accordingly to the meat used


Apr 20, 2016

Karim's Aloo Ghosht (Mughal Style Mutton with Potatoes)



Muslim mughlai goat lamb mutton Indian famous Karim restaurant

Since 1913 Karim's has been the most famous and iconic Mughal restaurant of old Delhi. "Aloo" means potato and "ghosht" is Urdu for mutton. In classic Mughal style, mutton is simmered in a rich blend of caramelized onions, warm aromatic spices, and tangy yogurt until falling off the bone tender. This creates the savory and spicy red gravy so prized by the royals of the Mughal court which perfectly pairs with the creamy and delicate potatoes.


Karim's original restaurant in Old Delhi.
When the coronation of King George V as Emperor of India was held in Delhi in 1911 the son of one of the cooks of the former royal Mughal court, Haji Karimuddin, had a brilliant idea. He opened a small restaurant called a dhaba to cater to all the people coming from all over India to attend the coronation. Haji Karimuddin opened the first Karim's in Delhi stating "I want to earn fame and money by serving the royal food to the common man." The origial Karim's near the historic Jama Masjid mosque served just three items, aloo ghosht, dal, and rumalli roti. This is legendary dish that launched Delhi's most famous culinary destination - Aloo Ghosht.


I first saw this recipe on an Indian television show a few years ago featuring Indian MasterChef winner Pankaj Bhadouria. With a bit of tinkering and some educated guesses as to what was actually implied by the rather vague recipe on her website I have to say this does indeed taste exactly like the original dish as served at Karim's. The key to this recipe is getting the caramelized onions right, brown them perfectly. Not a bit black or the onion's flavor will be bitter and burnt and ruin the entire dish. Err on the side of underdone with the onions if you must. The Mughals and Karim's would leave the cardamoms, cloves, and peppercorns whole, I have chosen to grind them with the yogurt for a boost of flavor. Whether you choose to leave the spices whole or ground this dish is a delicious incarnation of the nostalgic flavors of old Delhi's royal Mughal heritage.

Ingredients:
1kg/2lbs mutton/goat, bone in, cut into 3 inch pieces
1 C onions, thinly sliced into half moons
1/2 C ghee
1 tsp salt
2 tsp garam masala
3 large potatoes, boiled until tender, peeled & cut into 2 inch pieces
Grind until smooth for masala:
1 C full fat yogurt/dahi
1 tsp flour/maida (this will keep your yogurt from splitting
1 TBS garlic/lahsun paste
1 TBS ginger/adrak paste
2 TBS ground coriander/dhania seeds
1 TBS ground cumin/jeera
1 TBS Kashmiri mirch ( or 1&1/2 tsp cayenne plus 1&1/2 tsp paprika)
2 tsp black peppercorns/kali mirch
1 tsp turmeric/haldi
9 cloves/laung
9 green cardamoms/elaichi
4 black cardamoms/kali elaichi
1 tsp salt

Here's what to do:
1) Grind all ingredients listed under masala to smooth paste, set aside.

 

2) Heat 1/4 C ghee with 1 tsp salt in kadhai or large heavy bottomed skillet. Fry sliced onions over medium heat until a deep golden brown. This will probably take about 12 to 15 minutes. Watch them carefully as you want them browned and caramelized  but not black. If you overcook them to the blackened stage they'll be bitter and you'll just have to throw them out and start over.


3) Set browned onions aside and allow to cool. Be aware that thee onions will continue cooking for a few minutes after you take them off the heat so leave them a bit underdone. When cooled grind browned onions to a smooth paste.


4) Heat 1/4 C ghee in a pressure cooker or large stock pot. Add mutton pieces and ground masala paste. Stir well and allow to simmer for 7 minutes. 


5) Add fried onion paste, 2 tsp garam masala, and 1&1/2 C water to meat mixture. Stir well. 


6) If using pressure cooker, seal and steam until meat is tender. If using stock pot on stove simmer until meat is tender adding 1/2 C water as needed to prevent drying out, this will take about 3-4 hours. If using crock pot or slow cooker transfer meat mixture to cooker and allow to simmer on medium for 3-4 until meat is tender.


7) When meat is tender and oil separates from the gravy stir in potato pieces and allow to heat through. Salt to taste and serve.

Helpful hints:
If you are not fond of mutton/goat this recipe would work well with beef, lamb, water buffalo, venison, or elk shank or stew meat, simply shorten cooking times accordingly.

Do not burn or blacken the onions, you will ruin the entire dish.  Brown is what we want, remember the onions will continue to cook for a few minutes after you've removed them from the heat. Fry the onions over medium heat.

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